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GLYMPHATIC / LYMPHATIC SYSTEMS (GLY)
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The glymphatic system of the brain was described and named in 2013 by Dr. Maiken Nedergaard, a Danish neuroscientist. The glymphatic system is a "macroscopic waste clearance system that utilizes a unique system of perivascular channels, formed by astroglial cells, to promote efficient elimination of soluble proteins and metabolites from the central nervous system. Besides waste elimination, the glymphatic system may also function to help distribute non-waste compounds, such as glucose, lipids, amino acids, and neurotransmitters related to volume transmission, in the brain. It is as a system for waste clearance in the brain and central nervous system (CNS) of vertebrates."
Astrocytes also known collectively as astroglia, are star-shaped glial cells in the brain and spinal cord. They perform many functions: biochemical control of endothelial cells that form the blood-brain barrier, provision of nutrients to the nervous tissue, maintenance of extracellular ion balance, regulation of cerebral blood flow, and a role in the repair the brain and spinal cord following infection and traumatic injuries.
Protoplasmic astrocytes appear distributed relatively uniformly within cortical gray matter, fibrous astrocytes are organized along white matter tracts, within which they are oriented longitudinally in the plane of the fibre bundles. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3506190/#
Astrocyte End Feet
Protoplasmic astrocytes are found in gray matter and their endfoot processes ensheath synapses. Fibrous astrocytes reside in white matter and their endfeet contact myelin membranes and nodes of Ranvier. Endfeet of both types of astrocytes cover more than 90% of brain capillaries
Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) Water Channels
AQP4 water channels embedded in astrocytic end-feet, solute transport
Amyloid Beta peptide / Aβ
Blood Brain Barrier
Brain Lymph Fluid
While the central nervous system lacks lymphatic vasculature and is considered immune privileged, a network of lymphatics in the meninges in mammals runs beside the dural venous sinuses and extends upon the dura mater surrounding the brain. https://www.ahajournals.org/doi/10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.120.318496
Brain Parenchyma Drainage Pathway
Brain‐Wide Glymphatic (Glial‐Lymphatic) Pathway
The brain lymphatic drainage system is composed of basement membrane-based perivascular pathway, a brain-wide glymphatic pathway, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drainage routes including sinus-associated meningeal lymphatic vessels and olfactory/cervical lymphatic routes. The brain lymphatic systems function physiological as a route of drainage for interstitial fluid (ISF) from brain parenchyma to nearby lymph nodes. Brain lymphatic drainage helps maintain water and ion balance of the ISF, waste clearance, and reabsorption of macromolecular solutes. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S030100821730062X
Cerebral Spinal Fluid (CSF)
are said to drive the CSF convective bulk flow in the perivascular spaces and are the key contributors of CSF entry into the brain parenchyma allowing CSF-ISF fluid exchange in the glymphatic system. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnana.2021.665803/full
Dural‐Sinus‐Lined Meningeal Lymphatic Vessels
Glial Cells / Gliocytes
Interstitial Fluid (ISF)
Interstitial Waste Products
Misfolded Prion Proteins PrP
Olfactory/Cervical Lymphatic Pathway
Periarterial Space (PAS)
Perivascular Space / Virchow–Robin Space
Tau Proteins (T-Tau, P-Tau, Hyperphosphorylated Tau)
Gut Associated Lymphatic Tissue (GALT)
Intestinal Villous Atrophy
Lymph Nodes, Occipital
Lymph Nodes, Cervical
Lymph Nodes, Mastoid
Lymph Nodes, Parotid
Lymph Nodes, Supraclavicular
Lymph nodes, Pectoral
Lymph nodes, Axillary
Lymph Nodes, Mediastinal
Lymph Nodes, Mesenteric
Lymph Nodes, Paraaortic
Lymph Nodes, Iliac
Lymph Nodes, Inguinal and Femoral
Lymph Nodes, Abdominal
Lymphatic Duct, Right
Lymphatic Duct, Thoracic
Lymphatic Semilunar Valves
This valve system involves collagen fibers attached to lymphatic endothelial cells that respond to increased interstitial fluid pressure by separating the endothelial cells and allowing the flow of lymph into the capillary for circulation. There is another system of semilunar valves that prevents back-flow of lymph along the lumen of the vessel.
Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue (MALT)
Peyer’s Patches (PPs)
The Peyer's patches contain a significant number of dendritic cells, macrophages, and lymphocytes. Since the gastrointestinal system has exposure to a significant number of pathogens, it is vital for immune surveillance.
The gut-associated lymphoid tissue lies throughout the intestine, covering an area of approximately 260–300 m2
Quantity: 75 Vials
Model : GLY
Note: Ergopathics test kits are not intended to diagnose, prevent, treat or cure any disease, disorder or abnormal physical state. The vials contain ethanol and water and the process used to imprint them with electromagnetic signatures has not been tested or validated by any scientific method and is not approved by any regulatory authority. They are intended for use solely by qualified providers to support wellness and manage stress.
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GLYMPHATIC / LYMPHATIC SYSTEMS (GLY)
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