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GLYMPHATIC / LYMPHATIC SYSTEMS (GLY)

$270.00 Regular price
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The glymphatic system of the brain was described and named in 2013 by Dr. Maiken Nedergaard, a Danish neuroscientist. The glymphatic system is a "macroscopic waste clearance system that utilizes a unique system of perivascular channels, formed by astroglial cells, to promote efficient elimination of soluble proteins and metabolites from the central nervous system. Besides waste elimination, the glymphatic system may also function to help distribute non-waste compounds, such as glucose, lipids, amino acids, and neurotransmitters related to volume transmission, in the brain. It is as a system for waste clearance in the brain and central nervous system (CNS) of vertebrates." 

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4636982/#

 

 

Astrocyte, Protoplasmic

 

Astrocyte, Fibrous

Astrocytes also known collectively as astroglia, are star-shaped glial cells in the brain and spinal cord. They perform many functions: biochemical control of endothelial cells that form the blood-brain barrier, provision of nutrients to the nervous tissue, maintenance of extracellular ion balance, regulation of cerebral blood flow, and a role in the repair the brain and spinal cord following infection and traumatic injuries.

Protoplasmic astrocytes appear distributed relatively uniformly within cortical gray matter, fibrous astrocytes are organized along white matter tracts, within which they are oriented longitudinally in the plane of the fibre bundles. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3506190/#

 

Astrocyte End Feet

Protoplasmic astrocytes are found in gray matter and their endfoot processes ensheath synapses. Fibrous astrocytes reside in white matter and their endfeet contact myelin membranes and nodes of Ranvier. Endfeet of both types of astrocytes cover more than 90% of brain capillaries 

 

Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) Water Channels

AQP4 water channels embedded in astrocytic end-feet, solute transport

 

Amyloid Beta peptide / Aβ

 

Blood Glucose

 

Blood Brain Barrier

 

Brain Lymph Fluid

While the central nervous system lacks lymphatic vasculature and is considered immune privileged, a network of lymphatics in the meninges in mammals runs beside the dural venous sinuses and extends upon the dura mater surrounding the brain.  https://www.ahajournals.org/doi/10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.120.318496

 

Brain Parenchyma Drainage Pathway

 

Brain‐Wide Glymphatic (Glial‐Lymphatic) Pathway

The brain lymphatic drainage system is composed of basement membrane-based perivascular pathway, a brain-wide glymphatic pathway, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drainage routes including sinus-associated meningeal lymphatic vessels and olfactory/cervical lymphatic routes. The brain lymphatic systems function physiological as a route of drainage for interstitial fluid (ISF) from brain parenchyma to nearby lymph nodes. Brain lymphatic drainage helps maintain water and ion balance of the ISF, waste clearance, and reabsorption of macromolecular solutes. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S030100821730062X

 

Carbon Dioxide

 

Cerebral Spinal Fluid (CSF)

 

Cerebral-Arterial Pulsations

are said to drive the CSF convective bulk flow in the perivascular spaces and are the key contributors of CSF entry into the brain parenchyma allowing CSF-ISF fluid exchange in the glymphatic system. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnana.2021.665803/full

 

Dural‐Sinus‐Lined Meningeal Lymphatic Vessels

 

Ependymal Cells

 

Glial Cells / Gliocytes

 

Glucose

 

Glutamate

 

Glymphatic CSF-ISF

 

Interstitial Fluid (ISF)

 

Interstitial Waste Products

 

Lactates Mix

 

Microglia

 

Misfolded Proteins

 

Misfolded Prion Proteins PrP

 

Olfactory/Cervical Lymphatic Pathway

 

Oligodendrocytes

 

Oxygen

 

Periarterial Space (PAS)

 

Perivascular Space / Virchow–Robin Space

 

Pyruvate

 

Schwann cells

 

Satellite cells

 

Sleep cycle

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4636982/#

 

Tau Proteins (T-Tau, P-Tau, Hyperphosphorylated Tau)

 

Water/H2O

 

Adenoid

 

Appendix

 

Gut Associated Lymphatic Tissue (GALT)

 

Intestinal Lacteals

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2352345X18301772

 

Intestinal Villi

 

Intestinal Microvilli

 

Intestinal Villous Atrophy

 

Lymph Fluid

 

Lymph Nodes, Occipital

 

Lymph Nodes, Cervical

 

Lymph Nodes, Mastoid

 

Lymph Nodes, Parotid

 

Lymph Nodes, Supraclavicular

 

Lymph nodes, Pectoral

 

Lymph nodes, Axillary

 

Lymph Nodes, Mediastinal

 

Lymph Nodes, Mesenteric

 

Lymph Nodes, Paraaortic

 

Lymph Nodes, Iliac

 

Lymph Nodes, Inguinal and Femoral

 

Lymph Nodes, Abdominal

 

Lymphatic Capillaries

 

Lymphatic Duct, Right

 

Lymphatic Duct, Thoracic

 

Lymphatic Semilunar Valves

 

Lymphatic Valves

This valve system involves collagen fibers attached to lymphatic endothelial cells that respond to increased interstitial fluid pressure by separating the endothelial cells and allowing the flow of lymph into the capillary for circulation. There is another system of semilunar valves that prevents back-flow of lymph along the lumen of the vessel.

 

Lymphatic System

 

Lymphatic Vessels

 

Lymphoid Tissue

 

Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue (MALT)

 

Peyer’s Patches (PPs)

The Peyer's patches contain a significant number of dendritic cells, macrophages, and lymphocytes. Since the gastrointestinal system has exposure to a significant number of pathogens, it is vital for immune surveillance.

 

Spleen

 

T Lymphocytes

 

T4 Lymphocytes

 

Thymus

 

Tonsils, Palatine

 

Tonsils, Lingual

 

Tonsils, Tubal

 

Waldeyer’s Ring

The gut-associated lymphoid tissue lies throughout the intestine, covering an area of approximately 260–300 m2

 

 

Quantity: 75 Vials

Model : GLY

Note: Ergopathics test kits are not intended to diagnose, prevent, treat or cure any disease, disorder or abnormal physical state.  The vials contain ethanol and water and the process used to imprint them with electromagnetic signatures has not been tested or validated by any scientific method and is not approved by any regulatory authority.  They are intended for use solely by qualified providers to support wellness and manage stress.

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Your payment information is processed securely. We do not store credit card details nor have access to your credit card information.

This website is encrypted. We take your security very seriously. All transactions powered by Shopify.

GLYMPHATIC / LYMPHATIC SYSTEMS (GLY)

GLYMPHATIC / LYMPHATIC SYSTEMS (GLY)

$270.00